Safety and functional safety in the automotive industry.



Innovation & Technology






Functional Safety, SOTIF, and Cybersecurity

Safety or Safety & Security? To answer this question, we must at least turn to Functional Safety (ISO 26262), SOTIF (Safety of the Intended Functionality, ISO/DIS 21448:2021), and Cybersecurity (ISO/SAE 21434) in the automotive industry environment.


Increases the Quality of Your Products and Processes:

Functional safety is elementary in developing complex products, their functionalities, and the associated underlying process steps. ISO 26262 defines state of the art for this: It defines an established procedure model for developing and producing series products in the automotive industry. The ISO standard combines the process model with required activities, the resulting results, work products, and the methods to be applied in each case.



SOTIF (EN: Safety of the Intended Functionality) is the assurance according to ISO/DIS 21448:2021 to ensure the safety-related availability of functions in passenger vehicles. SOTIF closes the gap in ISO 26262 concerning the safety-relevant assessment of a functionality’s capability (=performance). In the context of functional safety, this consideration is explicitly excluded.


SOTIF uses HARA (Hazard analysis and risk assessment) to analyze the hazards and risks of the target function and performance. In contrast to SOTIF, ISO26262 considers malfunctions. Due to the importance of human-machine interactions, the integration of human factors methods makes sense.


Hazards and risks can be reduced by continuously defining and implementing measures to increase the target function’s safety. The system design is based on this safe, functional design.


At the end of the SOTIF process, a release is required, which, on the one hand, assesses the implementation of the SOTIF activities and, on the other hand, whether the measures (functional adaptation) have led to the required risk minimization.



Cybersecurity aims to protect the user from external attacks on the IT infrastructure. This involves, for example, the protection and availability of system faults due to sabotage by a hacker. Cybersecurity aims to prevent a malfunction or even a failure of the vehicle. Our network of FuSi experts, IT specialists, and human factors engineers work hand in hand with the relevant experts on cybersecurity projects.

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